## Characteristics of Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. The term derives from the Greek, hyposthenia meaning "to put under" or "to suppose". A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.

A good hypothesis must be testable . It should predict the outcome of an experiment or observation.

Some scientists prefer operational definitions (how you measure something) over conceptual definitions (what something means). According to this view, it's not enough to define 'consciousness', for example, in terms of neuronal activity in certain parts of the brain - one must also specify exactly how that neuronal activity manifests itself behaviorally . If two scientists disagree on whether some statement constitutes an operational definition, they will also probably disagree on whether or not it's a good hypothesis.

The person proposing the hypothesis must also consider whether there are any "auxiliary hypotheses" that come along with it. These may be mathematical, atomic or conceptual in nature, and typically provide additional constraints to limit the ways in which a phenomenon might occur.

A key aspect of a good hypothesis is that it makes testable predictions . For example, if someone hypothesizes that a certain chemical causes cancer, his prediction would be that this chemical should be present in people who have been diagnosed with cancer. If this chemical were not present, then the hypothesis would have to be either revised or discarded.

Accordingly, scientists approach phenomena with an attitude of curiosity and desire for information, hence the oft-repeated phrase scientist wants to know. This is in contrast to the approach of a religious authority who would typically have some dogma or doctrine they wish to prove .

A hypothesis is generally expected to be proved false , given enough time and/or testing of its predictions. This helps distinguish potentially successful theories from accepted facts . For example, Albert Einstein's theory of relativity has replaced Newtonian mechanics as an accepted model of motion, but it will almost certainly be replaced over time by an even better theory. This enables scientists studying phenomena with similar properties (e.g., planetary motion) to build on previous work rather than trying to solve all problems independently - which is often impractical or impossible.

Conversely, it is also important to consider whether the weight of evidence has become great enough to accept a conclusion as accurate. This is especially true when dealing with abstract concepts, such as math or logic, where proving something 'true' might require an enormous number of verifications . For example, mathematicians generally consider proofs that are more than twenty statements long to be impractically long and will not bother reading them unless they prove particularly interesting.

This type of acceptance does not imply that the hypothesis must be correct, only that it has been verified a sufficient number of times. Thus a scientist can never know for certain that his hypothesis is correct; he can only verify its accuracy to the best available degree. Acceptance also allows scientists from other specialties to rely on results in their own work.

A well-constructed hypothesis is like a seed, in that it contains the fundamental information and can grow into a full-blown theory.

## Types of Hypothesis

Hypothesis is a tentative relationship or testable assumption/prediction/conjecture between two or more variables which gives a direction to a research.

**Null Hypothesis**

Null Hypothesis indicates there is no relationship between
dependent and independent variables that the researcher compares on a certain
variable.

**Directional
Hypothesis**

Directional Hypothesis indicates the exact nature of the
relationship between variables.

**Non-directional
Hypothesis**

Non-directional
Hypothesis indicates a relationship between
variables but do not specify the exact nature of the relationship.

**Descriptive/
Univariate Hypothesis**

Descriptive
hypothesis contains only one variable, so it is called univariate hypothesis. C

**Explanatory/ Causal
/Bivariate Hypothesis**

Explanatory hypo thesis is used to test the cause
and effect relationship between two or more than two variables.

**Simple Hypothesis **

A simple hypothesis reflects relationship between two
variables-independent and dependent variable.

**Complex Hypothesis**

Complex Hypothesis reflects relationship
among more than two variables.